For patients suffering from more serious biomechanical disorders the custom-made (rigid) Orthotics provide a better solution. The devices are only available from a Podiatrist. Over-pronation is the most common ailment most people suffer from. Conversely, the opposite of 'pronation' is 'supination'. People suffering from this manifestation find their feet roll outwards or 'supinate' and the arch stiffens up remaining high as the foot makes contact with the ground. The deformity affects a mere 5 percent of the population and is called a Cavus or High Arch Foot. Supinators need custom-made Orthotic devices that correct the malfunction. A bunion typically does not form because of bad or tight shoes, although they can contribute to them. The potential for developing a bunion is hereditary. If a parent or grandparent has a bunion, it puts you at greater risk for developing one yourself. This is because you inherit the mechanics that causes a bunion to form. So when you notice a bump on the side of your foot beginning to form, see a big callus on the side of your great toe, or start seeing your great toe drifting towards your second toe, that is the time to take action. A bunion is a common foot deformity that presents as a bump on the inside of your great toe joint. Especially in warmer climates, such as Houston, where people tend to wear open shoes year-round, people with bunions become concerned about the appearance. When they put on a closed shoe, the pressure on the bunion can cause a sharp, stabbing pain. Years of use has proven that most foot complaints will respond favourably to treatment with orthotics. These devices are found to be very effective for treating heel pain , heel spurs, Plantar Fasciitis, pain from bunions , callous and corns, Achilles Tendonitis, Ball of Foot Pain and Morton's Neuroma. Treatment for the neuroma consists of cortisone injections, orthotics, chemical destruction of the nerve, or surgery. Cortisone injections are generally used as an initial form of treatment. Cortisone is useful when injected around the nerve, because it can shrink the swelling of the nerve. This relieves the pressure on the nerve. Up to three cortisone injections can be given over a twelve-month period. Cortisone may provide relief for many months, but is often not a cure for the condition. The abnormal movements of the metatarsal bones continue to aggravate the condition over a period of time. In arthritic conditions, especially rheumatoid arthritis, it is important to establish a correct diagnosis. Often the symptoms in the foot or ankle may be the first indications of this diagnosis. A diagnosis is obtained through review of your medical history, your current occupation, and recreations activities you participate in and any previous history of problems to your feet or legs. One possible indication of RA is appearance of symptoms in the same joint on both feet or several joints in the feet. X-rays may also be obtained to clarify what joint damage is occurring. While high heels have their own set of concerns, the opposite end of the spectrum - flats - also present an issue for incurring arch and heel pain. That's primarily due to the inadequate cushioning and foot support in flats. The solution is to avoid wearing them for long periods of time and/or using cushioned inserts. Similar problems occur with the popular "gladiator' style of sandals. In these types of shoes irritation can build between toes as well as callus and dead skin building-up around the heels. To help minimize these effects podiatrists suggest choosing natural materials such soft, supple leather.